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Topic Review on the Reign of Sultan Hashim

When was Pengiran Temenggong Anak Hashim became the 25th Sultan of Brunei?


Who was his predecessor?

Sultan Abdul Momin.

Who was the father of Sultan Hashim?

Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddien II.

What was the size of Brunei when Sultan Hashim inherited from Sultan Abdul Momin?

Brunei was only the size of Modern Brunei plus the Limbang and Pandaruan districts.

When was the treaty of protection signed?

17th September 1888

Who signed the treaty of protection on behalf of the British?

Hugh Low.

What were the terms of the treaty of protection?

Brunei became British Protectorate with the Sultan as sovereign ruler.

Britian took over responsibility for Brunei’s external affairs.

The Sultan could not cede any land to foreign powers without the British consent.

Why was Charles Brooke attracted to Limbang?

It was the richest food growing district of Brunei.

When was Limbang seized by Charles Brooke?


When was Limbang annexed by Charles Brooke?


Who did the British Government send to investigate on Charles Brooke’s seizure of Limbang?

Noel Trevenan.

What was the result of the investigation?

12 of the 15 local chiefs were in favour of joining Sarawak.

The British Govenrment confirmed Charles Brooke’a annexation of Limbang.

Why was the Sultan objected to the way the investigation was done?

It took no account of the opinions of the uninvited chiefs.

Invited chiefs were all Brooke’s suppporters.

The officials accompanying Trevenan all worked for Charles Brooke.

What was the cause of the disturbances in Belait and Tutong?

Heavy taxes imposed by the Tulin holders.

Who was the British consul who supported Charles Brooke to annex Belait and Tutong?


Who did Sultan Hashim write a letter to in 1903 to ask for help to get back Limbang?

Sultan Abdul Hamid

What was the job of Malcolm McArthur to Brunei?

To write a report about the problems in Brunei.

What did Malcolm McArthur recommend in his report?

He recommended a new agreement to supplement the Treaty of Protection.

Why was Supplementary treaty recommended?

To make the Treaty of Protection stronger and help to protect Brunei.

Who signed the Supplementary treaty on behalf of the British?

John Anderson in 1906.

When was the Supplementary treaty was signed by the Sultan?


What was the term of the Supplementary treaty?

Brunei accepted a British Resident to advise the Sultan on all matters except Islam.


Topic Review on Sultan Abdul Momin

1). What was Sultan Abdul Momin’s relationship to SOAS I?

The grandson of SOAS I

2). What was Sultan Abdul Momin’s relationship to SOAS II?

The son-in-law of SOAS II.

3). In which year did Sultan Abdul Momin give up James Brooke Batang Lupar Area?


4). What were the territories given up by the Sultan in 1855 to James Brooke?

Samarahan to Rajang.

5). What were the territories ceded by the Sultan in 1861 to James Brooke?

Rajang to Bintulu including Mukah to Oya. Take note: Coastal areas and rivers of Tanjung Kedurong were also ceded to James Brooke in the same year.

6). When did James Brooke leave Kuching after 22 years as the Raja of Sarawak?

1863 and he died in 1868 in England.

7). What were the territories inherited by Charles Brooke when he became the new Raja?

Tanjung Datu to Tanjung Kedurong.

8). What were the areas given to Charles Brooke in 1883?

Tanjung Kedurong to Baram.

9). What were the districts obtained by Charles Brooke in 1884?

Tanjung Puan to Terusan.

10). What was Charles Lee Moses appointed as in Brunei 1865?

American Consul General to Brunei.

11). What were the territories obtained by Charles Lee Moses when he signed a treaty with the Sultan?

Sulaman river to Paitan river.

12). What were the territories obtained by Charles Lee Moses from Pg Temenggong Pg Anak Hashim?

Paitan river to Kimanis including Balabak Island and Palawan Island.

13). What was the name of the company set up by Charles Lee Moses and William Joseph Torrey?

American Trading Company.

14). Who did WJ Torrey sell his concession rights in North Borneo to?

Baron von Overbeck (Austrian Consul General to Hong Kong).

15). Who did Baron von Overbeck go into partnership with and formed the Dent Company?

Alfred Dent.

16). Why did Baron von Overbeck sell his share to Alfed Dent?

He faced financial problems and could not get any support from Austrian government.

17). When did the British government grant the Royal charter to British North Borneo Company ?


18). Who was the first governor of North Borneo?

William Hood Treacher.

19). What was the agreement of Amanat 1885 about?

An agreement between Sultan, Wazirs, Manteris and Tulin holders to not cede any remaining territories to foreigners.

20). Why was the agreement of Amanat 1885 not effective?

No support from the British and Brunei did not have warships to enforce the Amanat so that’s why many Brunei territories continued to be taken including Limbang.

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SOAS II topic review

To students Year 7ETRUL, This link hereĀ SOAS II summary table review is a revision notes on the topic of SOAS II that you can download for your own reference. You can use it for your own revision on this topic. Scroll down to get more information related to this topic.

Questions and Answers Review.

1. When did SOAS II become the 23rd Sultan of Brunei?


2. Why Britain had little involvement in Borneo at the beginning of the 19th century?

They were more interested in using Penang as their main trading base.

3. When was the British intervention in Brunei started?

It started with the arrival of James Brooke to Sarawak in 1839.

4. Who was appointed the Governor in Sarawak by Sultan Muhammad Kanzul Alam in 1824?

Pengiran Indera Mahkota Pengiran Muhammad Salleh.

5. Where was the old capital of Sarawak located?

Lidah Tanah.

6. What was the major export of Sarawak in the early 19th century?


7. Why was the local people rebelled against Pengiran Indera Mahkota?

He forced the local people to work in his mines.

8. Who came to visit Pengiran Indera Mahkota in Sarawak in 1834?

Pengiran Muda Hashim.

9. Why was there friction between Pengiran Muda Hashim and Pengiran Indera Mahkota?

Pengiran Indera Mahkota did not welcomed Pengiran Muda Hashim when he arrived in Sarawak so Pengiran Muda Hashim became angry about this.

10. What two problems did James Brooke take advantage of to achieve his personal aims?

The friction between two nobles and local disturbances in Sarawak against Pengiran Indera Mahkota.

11. Who offered James Brooke the control of Sarawak if he can help defeat the rebels?

Pengiran Muda Hashim.

12. Which treaty appointed James Brooke the Governor in Sarawak?

The 1842 treaty with the Sultan’s approval.

13. What happened to Pengiran Indera Mahkota after the treaty of 1842?

Pengiran Indera Mahkota was forced to step down as Governor of Sarawak and to leave Kuching.

14. Why did the British attack on Brunei in July 1846?

The murder of Pengiran Muda Hashim and most of his family made James Brooke angry so he took revenge by attacking Brunei Town.

15. Who did James Brooke obtain permission from to attack Brunei?

The British governor-general of India.

16. Which treaty made James Brooke as Raja of Sarawak?

Treaty signed on 2 August 1846.

17. What were the terms under the treaty signed on 2 August 1846?

James Brooke recognised by Brunei as the Raja of Sarawak to rule territories from Tanjung Datu to the Samarahan River.

James Brooke was free to appoint his own successor as Raja of Sarawak.

James Brooke would pay $4000 per year to the Sultan of Brunei.

18. Why were the British interested in Labuan?

It was strategically sited to protect British interests in the China trade route.

Rich supplies of coal.

19. Who was the British Navy Captain who lined up British warships near the Sultan’s Palace?

Captain Rodney Mundy.

20. When was the treaty of Labuan signed?

18th December 1846.

21. What was the terms under treaty of Labuan?

Labuan was ceded to the British

James Brooke was appointed the first governor of Labuan in 1848.

22. Why was the British wanted a treaty of Friendship and Commerce with Brunei in 1847?

To take control of Brunei’s affairs and the fear of the Sultan might seek help from other foreign powers.

23. When was the Anglo-Brunei treaty of Friendship and Commerce signed?

27th May 1847.

24. What were the terms of the Anglo-Brunei treaty of friendship and commerce in 1847?

British subjects would be allowed to live and trade in Brunei.

British subjects would have extraterritorial rights.

All imports and exports by the British in Brunei and its territories would be free from taxes.

British warships could enter all ports and rivers in Brunei.

The Sultan would not cede any Brunei territories without the consent of the British government.

25. Why was the American interested in signing treaty of friendship and commerce with Brunei in 1850?

They wanted to trade in Brunei.

26. Who composed the Syair Rakis?

Pengiran Indera Mahkota Pengiran Muhammad Salleh.

27. What was the Syair Rakis contained?

It contained Pengiran Indera Mahkota’s observations on the political situation of Brunei in the 19th century and advice to be wary of foreign intervention.

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