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Topic Review on the Reign of Sultan Hashim

When was Pengiran Temenggong Anak Hashim became the 25th Sultan of Brunei?


Who was his predecessor?

Sultan Abdul Momin.

Who was the father of Sultan Hashim?

Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddien II.

What was the size of Brunei when Sultan Hashim inherited from Sultan Abdul Momin?

Brunei was only the size of Modern Brunei plus the Limbang and Pandaruan districts.

When was the treaty of protection signed?

17th September 1888

Who signed the treaty of protection on behalf of the British?

Hugh Low.

What were the terms of the treaty of protection?

Brunei became British Protectorate with the Sultan as sovereign ruler.

Britian took over responsibility for Brunei’s external affairs.

The Sultan could not cede any land to foreign powers without the British consent.

Why was Charles Brooke attracted to Limbang?

It was the richest food growing district of Brunei.

When was Limbang seized by Charles Brooke?


When was Limbang annexed by Charles Brooke?


Who did the British Government send to investigate on Charles Brooke’s seizure of Limbang?

Noel Trevenan.

What was the result of the investigation?

12 of the 15 local chiefs were in favour of joining Sarawak.

The British Govenrment confirmed Charles Brooke’a annexation of Limbang.

Why was the Sultan objected to the way the investigation was done?

It took no account of the opinions of the uninvited chiefs.

Invited chiefs were all Brooke’s suppporters.

The officials accompanying Trevenan all worked for Charles Brooke.

What was the cause of the disturbances in Belait and Tutong?

Heavy taxes imposed by the Tulin holders.

Who was the British consul who supported Charles Brooke to annex Belait and Tutong?


Who did Sultan Hashim write a letter to in 1903 to ask for help to get back Limbang?

Sultan Abdul Hamid

What was the job of Malcolm McArthur to Brunei?

To write a report about the problems in Brunei.

What did Malcolm McArthur recommend in his report?

He recommended a new agreement to supplement the Treaty of Protection.

Why was Supplementary treaty recommended?

To make the Treaty of Protection stronger and help to protect Brunei.

Who signed the Supplementary treaty on behalf of the British?

John Anderson in 1906.

When was the Supplementary treaty was signed by the Sultan?


What was the term of the Supplementary treaty?

Brunei accepted a British Resident to advise the Sultan on all matters except Islam.


SOAS II topic review

To students Year 7ETRUL, This link hereĀ SOAS II summary table review is a revision notes on the topic of SOAS II that you can download for your own reference. You can use it for your own revision on this topic. Scroll down to get more information related to this topic.

Questions and Answers Review.

1. When did SOAS II become the 23rd Sultan of Brunei?


2. Why Britain had little involvement in Borneo at the beginning of the 19th century?

They were more interested in using Penang as their main trading base.

3. When was the British intervention in Brunei started?

It started with the arrival of James Brooke to Sarawak in 1839.

4. Who was appointed the Governor in Sarawak by Sultan Muhammad Kanzul Alam in 1824?

Pengiran Indera Mahkota Pengiran Muhammad Salleh.

5. Where was the old capital of Sarawak located?

Lidah Tanah.

6. What was the major export of Sarawak in the early 19th century?


7. Why was the local people rebelled against Pengiran Indera Mahkota?

He forced the local people to work in his mines.

8. Who came to visit Pengiran Indera Mahkota in Sarawak in 1834?

Pengiran Muda Hashim.

9. Why was there friction between Pengiran Muda Hashim and Pengiran Indera Mahkota?

Pengiran Indera Mahkota did not welcomed Pengiran Muda Hashim when he arrived in Sarawak so Pengiran Muda Hashim became angry about this.

10. What two problems did James Brooke take advantage of to achieve his personal aims?

The friction between two nobles and local disturbances in Sarawak against Pengiran Indera Mahkota.

11. Who offered James Brooke the control of Sarawak if he can help defeat the rebels?

Pengiran Muda Hashim.

12. Which treaty appointed James Brooke the Governor in Sarawak?

The 1842 treaty with the Sultan’s approval.

13. What happened to Pengiran Indera Mahkota after the treaty of 1842?

Pengiran Indera Mahkota was forced to step down as Governor of Sarawak and to leave Kuching.

14. Why did the British attack on Brunei in July 1846?

The murder of Pengiran Muda Hashim and most of his family made James Brooke angry so he took revenge by attacking Brunei Town.

15. Who did James Brooke obtain permission from to attack Brunei?

The British governor-general of India.

16. Which treaty made James Brooke as Raja of Sarawak?

Treaty signed on 2 August 1846.

17. What were the terms under the treaty signed on 2 August 1846?

James Brooke recognised by Brunei as the Raja of Sarawak to rule territories from Tanjung Datu to the Samarahan River.

James Brooke was free to appoint his own successor as Raja of Sarawak.

James Brooke would pay $4000 per year to the Sultan of Brunei.

18. Why were the British interested in Labuan?

It was strategically sited to protect British interests in the China trade route.

Rich supplies of coal.

19. Who was the British Navy Captain who lined up British warships near the Sultan’s Palace?

Captain Rodney Mundy.

20. When was the treaty of Labuan signed?

18th December 1846.

21. What was the terms under treaty of Labuan?

Labuan was ceded to the British

James Brooke was appointed the first governor of Labuan in 1848.

22. Why was the British wanted a treaty of Friendship and Commerce with Brunei in 1847?

To take control of Brunei’s affairs and the fear of the Sultan might seek help from other foreign powers.

23. When was the Anglo-Brunei treaty of Friendship and Commerce signed?

27th May 1847.

24. What were the terms of the Anglo-Brunei treaty of friendship and commerce in 1847?

British subjects would be allowed to live and trade in Brunei.

British subjects would have extraterritorial rights.

All imports and exports by the British in Brunei and its territories would be free from taxes.

British warships could enter all ports and rivers in Brunei.

The Sultan would not cede any Brunei territories without the consent of the British government.

25. Why was the American interested in signing treaty of friendship and commerce with Brunei in 1850?

They wanted to trade in Brunei.

26. Who composed the Syair Rakis?

Pengiran Indera Mahkota Pengiran Muhammad Salleh.

27. What was the Syair Rakis contained?

It contained Pengiran Indera Mahkota’s observations on the political situation of Brunei in the 19th century and advice to be wary of foreign intervention.

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Topical Test Review

Next week please be informed that there will be a topical test for 25 minutes. The test will be scheduled to the classes as follow:

7T – Tuesday 9/8/11

7R- Tuesday 9/8/11

7U- Tuesday 9/8/11 (change to Thursday 11/8/11)

7E- Wednesday 10/8/11

7L – Wednesday 10/8/11

The test will include four topics:

The arrival of Spanish

The Castille War

The Separation of Sulu

The coming of the British in the 17th to 18th Centuries

Here some hints and topic review that should be noted:

Key Dates to know:



14 April 1578

26 June 1578

Mid of the 17th Century






Key people to know

Antonio Pigafetta

Dr Francisco De Sande

Sultan Saiful Rijal

Pengiran Seri Lela

Pengiran Seri Ratna

Pengiran Bendahara Sakam

Alexander Dalrymple

John Jesse

Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin I

Thomas Forrest

Studying Questions:

When did the Spanish ship Victoria reach Brunei?


Who wrote about the visit to Brunei when the Spanish arrived in 1521?

Antonio Pigafetta

Who was the Spanish Governor in Manila in 1576?

Dr Francisco de Sande

What were the 3 terms demanded by the Spanish Governor in Manila to Brunei?

The Spanish wanted to have good relations with Brunei

They asked to be allowed to spread Christianity in Brunei

The Bruneian Missionaries stop spreading Islam in the Philippines

Why did the Spanish attack Brunei on 14 April 1578?

Sultan Saiful Rijal did not agree to allow Christian Missionaries coming to Brunei

He also did not agree to stop Bruneian Missinaries from spreading Islam in the Philippines.

How did the Spanish attack Brunei and managed to capture Brunei’s capital?

They brought a fleet of 40 ships and many soldiers

They were helped by two Bruneian nobles who turned traitors

How many days did the Spanish capture Brunei?

72 days only

When did Sulu break away from Brunei’s control?

Mid of 17th century

Who left Brunei and started to work for Sulu?


Which lands of Brunei were attackedby Sulu?


Who made an agreement with the Sultan of Sulu to allow the British to use part of the North Borneo and some nearby islands for trade?

Alexander Dalrymple

What does EIC stand for?

East India Company

Where did the EIC set up trading post in Borneo in 1773?


Who did the EIC sent in 1774 to Brunei to buy pepper from Chinese gardeners?

John Jesse

Which Island was offered to the British in 1775 by SOAS I in return for Brunei’s protection against Sulu?


Why did the British leave Brunei in 1777?

They were losing money on their trading operation in Borneo.

Who visited Brunei in 1776 and described Brunei Town?

Thomas Forrest