HISTORY.TO.THE.MAX

Recounting the Memories of the Past

Monthly Archives: October 2011

Where is exactly Tanjung Puan?

Tanjung or point means a tapering piece of land projecting into a body of water, less prominent than a cape. This Tanjung Puan according to the textbook was part of the concession belonged to Charles Brooke in 1884. But it seems that this Tanjung Puan is located in Temburong and quite far from Terusan. Brunei Forestry Department also has a working station at Tanjung Puan to protect wildlife in that surrounding vicinity. So it could be true that Tanjung Puan belongs to Brunei and perhaps the textbook got mixed up and used Tanjung Puan as the boundary to where the British claimed Terusan district.

Tanjung Puan - Part of Brunei or Sarawak?

 

Shakira – her hips say learn history for enlightenment

Shakira studied Western History

Shakira a world renowned singer from Colombia in 2007 spent her summer time attending classes in History of Civilisation at the University of California, Los Angeles. A source said: ” while everyone else has been at the beach, the MTV Awards and the Emmys, Shakira’s been studying History of Western Civilisation all summer at UCLA.”  The professor who taught her in the class had no idea who Shakira was and asked her why she was doing this, she responded for “my own enlightenment and enjoyment.”

It is quite inspiring to know that no matter how famous you are (as Shakira is), education is very important in life. Possibly, she chooses History and not other subject because she wanted to become a better person by learning from the past. I bet her investment in studying History will pay her off in the future and inspire her to produce more touching yet record-breaking songs.

The Amanat – Sultan Abdul Momin’s ‘Will’

Sultan Abdul Momin ceded many territories to the Brookes and other Europeans due to financial and internal problems. By 1884, the Sultan faced potential problem of shrinking kingdom or even worse probable extinction as British North Borneo Chartered Company and the Brooke encroaching its influence towards the Brunei Proper. The Sultan decided to stop the act of ceding or leasing the remaining territories of Brunei by introducing an agreement to all of the Wazirs, Manteris and Tulin holders. This happened in 1885 but unfortunately the Amanat was not effective because Brunei had no military means to enforce it and the British had no support in it. Limbang for example was seized in 1890.

Below believed to be the excerpt from the Amanat (or the speech) written on the 6th Jamal-ah-Ahwal, 1302, in the city of Brunei.

“Now concerning Limbang and other countries which still remains under the government of Brunei, they cannot be leased or given away to any other nation but must remain under one rule and that of our ancestors who may be elected Rajahs of Brunei, cannot on any account take rivers, or slaves, or private property and in the same manner the slaves appertaining to the Sovereign cannot be made private slaves. After us to whomever property may belong it will remain to him, rivers, followers, ‘tulin’ and hereditary property. And the customs of our ancestors shall be followed by those who come after us. They can on no account be changed while there is sun and moon, in order that there shall be no complication in the country.”

 

 

Mukah was a major sago producing area

Mukah was well-known for its sago production. It used to send its sago production to Brunei before it became part of Sarawak in 1861 when Sultan Abdul Momin ceded to James Brooke.  Since then sago production became one of the most important trading exports of Sarawak particularly during the Brooke government. Nowadays, oil palm plantation has replaced sago palm cultivation as Mukah’s main agricultural crop.

Traditionally, sago has been the staple food for Melanau people in Sarawak. They make a variety of dishes and delicacies out of sago such as sago pearls, sago crackers and not to mention the nutritious sago worms.

The 20 metre tall chimney from the first sago factory. Taken from sixthseal.com

Sago comes in a paste form which can be used for cooking various dishes. Taken from sixthseal.com

Sago pearls. Taken from sixthseal.com

The yummy sago worms. Taken from sixthseal.com

Any comments or insights on Mukah are always welcomed.

James Brooke envisaged a vibrant trading port of Kuching

When James Brooke strengthened his position as the Rajah of Sarawak and acquired Tanjung Datu to Samarahan river through a treaty signed in 1846 between Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddien and the British, he knew that it was just the beginning to his relentless pursuit of territorial expansion and majestic rule in Sarawak.

From 1853 until his death in 1868, he remarkably acquired territories stretching from Tanjung Datu to Tanjung Kedurong from Sultan Abdul Momin in exchange of annual payment which later were passed down to his successor Charles Brooke.

James Brooke knew that by capturing these territories he could make Kuching the busiest trading port in Borneo. Apart from minerals such as gold and antimony, sago and other jungle products were exported to neighbouring countries such as Singapore that would help to generate income for Brooke government. As a result, much of the trade has diverted to Kuching and Brunei suffered trading losses in the long run.

Map of Sarawak 1866. Taken from sarikei-time-capsule.blogspot.com

 

James Brooke's signature

Why Pengiran Anak Abdul Momin was chosen as the Sultan?

Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddien II

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pengiran Anak Abdul Momin was only related to the Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddien II (SOAS II) when he married to the Sultan’s daughter Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Zubaidah and that made him the son-in-law of SOAS II. On top of that, he was not the first choice candidate to be chosen as the Sultan. In fact it was the brother of SOAS II, Pengiran  Anak Muhammad Tajuddien who was the first choice candidate.  So how come this son-in-law of SOAS II became the successor?

Sultan Abdul Momin

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Part of the reason why he was chosen due to his wealth of experience and knowledge in running the government. He was the Pengiran Bendahara and was in fact upon the death of SOAS II, he have previously served as regent for him during his ill health.

Another reason was that Keris si naga was passed down to him after Pengiran Anak Muhammad Tajuddien rejected to become the Sultan because he wanted his son Pengiran Muda Muhammad Jamalul Alam (also the son-in-law of SOAS II) would become the Sultan but was rejected. As result of that Pengiran Muhammad Tajuddien embarrassed and burned himself using gun powder.

When he became the Sultan, he had huge supporters and he tried to settle the differences within the royal family. He appointed Pengiran Muda Muhammad (brother of Pengiran Muda Hashim) as Pengiran Bendahara and Pengiran Anak Hashim was installed as Pengiran Temenggong.

Syarif Masahor – James Brooke’s rival

Sharif Masahor

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Syarif Masahor or Sharif Masahor was a famous Malay warrior in Sarawak during James Brooke’s era. He was very influential and respected due to both his charisma in uniting the people of different races and beliefs and also due to his lineage (descendant of Prophet Muhammad).

Like Rentap, Syarif Masahor displeased on James Brooke’s encroachment in Sarawak which caused many locals to rebel. Though not many Malays supported Syarif Masahor and his resistance fighters because of their loyalty to James Brooke, he did his best to stop Brooke’s plan and attacked in Kuching. Unfortunately, his attack came to a failure and banished to Selangor.

Click here for further info on him: http://sarikei-time-capsule.blogspot.com/2008/11/people-sarikei-sherip-masahor-circa.html

 

Introducing James Brooke’s opposition – Rentap!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rentap was a famous Dayak (Iban) warrior in Sarawak during James Brooke’s era. Rentap in Iban means Worldshaker. He is a national hero and freedom fighter. Probably you heard his famous battle cry which was Agi Idup, Agi Ngelaban!! which means I will fight as long as I will live!! It later became Malaysia’s Royal Ranger Regiment motto.

So why did Rentap fight against James Brooke you might ask? It was because James Brooke’s action of eliminating the Ibans in Skrang (he thought they were pirates and could impede their trading development in Batang Lupar Area) and also destroying their village.

Though Rentap did in some occasion stopped James Brooke’s plan to control Skrang and Saribas, superior weapons owned  by James Brooke’s side were too much to handle.That’s why James Brooke able to crush his opposition and spread his influence in Sarawak.

 

Topic Review on Sultan Abdul Momin

1). What was Sultan Abdul Momin’s relationship to SOAS I?

The grandson of SOAS I

2). What was Sultan Abdul Momin’s relationship to SOAS II?

The son-in-law of SOAS II.

3). In which year did Sultan Abdul Momin give up James Brooke Batang Lupar Area?

1853.

4). What were the territories given up by the Sultan in 1855 to James Brooke?

Samarahan to Rajang.

5). What were the territories ceded by the Sultan in 1861 to James Brooke?

Rajang to Bintulu including Mukah to Oya. Take note: Coastal areas and rivers of Tanjung Kedurong were also ceded to James Brooke in the same year.

6). When did James Brooke leave Kuching after 22 years as the Raja of Sarawak?

1863 and he died in 1868 in England.

7). What were the territories inherited by Charles Brooke when he became the new Raja?

Tanjung Datu to Tanjung Kedurong.

8). What were the areas given to Charles Brooke in 1883?

Tanjung Kedurong to Baram.

9). What were the districts obtained by Charles Brooke in 1884?

Tanjung Puan to Terusan.

10). What was Charles Lee Moses appointed as in Brunei 1865?

American Consul General to Brunei.

11). What were the territories obtained by Charles Lee Moses when he signed a treaty with the Sultan?

Sulaman river to Paitan river.

12). What were the territories obtained by Charles Lee Moses from Pg Temenggong Pg Anak Hashim?

Paitan river to Kimanis including Balabak Island and Palawan Island.

13). What was the name of the company set up by Charles Lee Moses and William Joseph Torrey?

American Trading Company.

14). Who did WJ Torrey sell his concession rights in North Borneo to?

Baron von Overbeck (Austrian Consul General to Hong Kong).

15). Who did Baron von Overbeck go into partnership with and formed the Dent Company?

Alfred Dent.

16). Why did Baron von Overbeck sell his share to Alfed Dent?

He faced financial problems and could not get any support from Austrian government.

17). When did the British government grant the Royal charter to British North Borneo Company ?

1881.

18). Who was the first governor of North Borneo?

William Hood Treacher.

19). What was the agreement of Amanat 1885 about?

An agreement between Sultan, Wazirs, Manteris and Tulin holders to not cede any remaining territories to foreigners.

20). Why was the agreement of Amanat 1885 not effective?

No support from the British and Brunei did not have warships to enforce the Amanat so that’s why many Brunei territories continued to be taken including Limbang.

………………………………………The end………………………………………………

Fort Alice

During the reign of Sultan Abdul Momin he gave up Batang Lupar to James Brooke 1853 simply because it was difficult to control the hostile tribes particularly the Iban population. In return the Sultan had annual payment and considered it as a good bargain.

Considering the problems James Brooke had to face in this territories (piracy, headhunters and resistance to his administration) and to encourage trade and development in Sarawak, he built a Fort on lowland named Fort James. However it was soon decided to dismantle and rebuild at a more strategic and more defensive site in Simanggang District. Thus Fort Alice was built.

Fort James at Skrang

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fort Alice was named after the wife of Charles Brooke, Ranee Margaret Alice Lili and built on a hill at Simanggang in 1864. It served as the Simanggang administration center and also a prison. Though the fort is still remains in tact, it is an extremely dilapidated and run down condition according to wikipedia.

Inside the Fort Alice

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The run-down Fort Alice

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ranee Margaret Brooke in 1871 aged 22.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

As always comments are welcomed.