HISTORY.TO.THE.MAX

Recounting the Memories of the Past

End-of-Year activities

The college organised some activities for afternoon sessions particularly Year 7 students to engage themselves since they have completed their subjects syllabus. Here are some of the activities i got the opportunities to take photos of:

1). Louis Mini zoo and LTS real estate’s farm

Anyone dare to touch my tongue?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2). Perkampungan MIB in the Auditorium

All eyes on the video presentation.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3). A visit to the Pusat Dakwah Islamiah

Who's ready for the trip?

Yay! I won a prize huhu..

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

By the way to all Year 7E, T, R, U & L have an enjoyable school holidays and it’s time to play hard until the school reopens.

Edward Norton – major in history!

Ed Norton in 2009

Edward Harrison Norton is quite an exceptional guy considering that he is not only an actor but also a screenwriter, film director and producer. Some of his notable films include Kingdom of Heaven, The Illusionist and The Incredible Hulk (however according to Wikipedia he won’t be back for the role of hulk in the 2012 film The Avengers).

Apart from his commitment in the glittery Hollywood scene, Norton also engaged in an environmental and social activities. In July 2010, Norton designated as the United Nations Goodwill Ambassador for Biodiversity by United Nation Secretary General Ban Ki-moon.

He was born and raised in Columbia, Maryland near Baltimore. He graduated from Columbia’s Wilde Lake High School in 1987. He attended Yale University, where he was a competitive rower and acted in university productions, graduating in 1991 with a Bachelor of Arts in History.

Norton is such a class act and down-to-earth guy who has said, “If i ever have to stop taking the subway, I’m gonna have a heart attack.” I’m sure he tries to live as normal as he can even though its hard to live life as a celebrity especially all the attention from the media he gets.

Early career of Sultan Hashim

The Palace of Sultan Hashim

Hashim Jalilul or Pengiran Anak Hashim as he was known (not to be confused with his nemesis, Pengiran Muda Hashim, who was the chief minister under Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin II), was perhaps one of the most important yet contentious figures in Brunei History.

Pengiran Anak Hashim Jalilul was born to Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin II (d. 1852). However, his mother was not the royal consort. Opinions differ regarding his actual date of birth. It has been placed from a date between the years 1811 to 1835. However, A.V.M. Horton’s estimate of 1824 seems to be more plausible.

When he was the Sultan it was believed that he was already reached 60 years old. In fact, he was an old and feeble Sultan when he was met by McArthur in 1904, who thought his age to be 70 while the Sultan himself told he had reached his 80s.

Pengiran Anak Hashim was no ordinary chief; confrontational at times and diplomatic at other times. Contemporary British accounts portray him as a crafty and determined personality who harboured no love for foreign imperial personages. Intensely nationalistic, deep in his heart he loathed everything about Britain, largely because of the activities of the Brookes. But there was little he could achieve by a direct conflict with imperialists. Yet, in 1840s while still a young man, he fought a proxy war by eliminating another branch of Brunei royalty supported by Britain and James Brooke.

The young Pengiran Anak Hashim earned the wrath of the British after the event which led to direct British Government involvement in Brunei affairs in 1846. Admiral Thomas Cochrane, the British Navy Commander in the East called the Pengiran a “man of worthless character.” Besides the Pengiran’s name  was implicated  in piratical activities in the region which the British were determined to stamp out. On the other hand, one British official rated the young Pengiran Anak Hashim quite high. He was described by some as an able and intelligent chief and enjoyed the friendship of Sir Spencer St. John, the British  Consul in Labuan.

Text taken from Brunei Revival of 1906: A Popular History by B.A. Hussainmiya.

 

The Yankee Consul Affairs

In 1846, an American named Charles Lee Moses received appointment as the first US Consul General in Brunei. Sultan Abdul Momin was much impressed by the ambitious promises made by the US Consul General and agreed to build a consulate building for him. The Sultan believed that Moses would bring economic benefits and American protection to Brunei. Moses succeeded in convincing the Sultan to lease out for ten years almost the entire North Borneo, comprising 21 districts from the Sulaman to the Paitan rivers and territories from Paitan to Kimanis – including the Balabac and Palawan islands. In return, the Sultan was to recieve $4,500 in annual payments, while Pengiran Temenggong Pengiran Anak Hashim’s share was another $4000.

Map of Sarawak in 1860s and Islands close to North Borneo

For Moses, the concession was purely a profit-making venture. Unfortunately his drive to get more profit did not help him to become a popular person in Brunei as he failed to keep his promises to the Sultan. The Sultan’s many requests for the British help in recovering the money owed to him fell on deaf ears. Moses found himself unable to recover the dues so he set fire to the US Consulate building and tried to implicate the Sultan in order to demand compensation. An American Government inquiry exonerated the Sultan and dismissed Moses from its service.

Daughter of CL Moses

Torrey, an American businessman acquired the leasing rights from Moses when he went to Hong Kong and renegotiated the lease later on.

[Text taken from Brunei Revival of 1906 by B.A. Hussainmiya]

Rajah Joseph William Torrey

Thomas Bradley Harris and Joseph William Torrey

North Borneo was never touched by any Europeans up until Charles Lee Moses came to Brunei and bought the leasing rights on almost the entire North Borneo from Sultan Abdul Momin and Pengiran Anak Pengiran Temenggong Hashim in 1865. The rights was later transferred to Joseph William Torrey of Hong Kong, Thomas Bradley Harris, Tat Cheong and other Chinese merchants. In fact these rights were transferrable to his successors in the company on the event of Torrey’s death.

Torrey began a settlement at the Kimanis River mouth, which he called Ellana.  Sugarcane, tobacco and rice were planted and some trade was conducted along the coast.

He was also highly regarded in North Borneo as he was not only the president of the American Trading Company of Borneo but also conferred by the Sultan the title of Rajah of Ambong and Marudu with ‘all other powers and rights usually exercised by and belonging to sovereign rulers’.

However, the company faced financial problems and other adversities such as diseases and desertion by immigrant labourers towards the end of 1866. In May 1866 Harris who had been appointed Chief Secretary died of fever and the settlement was withdrawn in November 1866.

Before Torrey returned to United Sates in 1877, he managed to sell his rights to the Consul of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in Hong Kong, Baron Von Overbeck. Torrey died in Boston Massachusetts in March 1884.

Topic Review on the Reign of Sultan Hashim

When was Pengiran Temenggong Anak Hashim became the 25th Sultan of Brunei?

1885.

Who was his predecessor?

Sultan Abdul Momin.

Who was the father of Sultan Hashim?

Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddien II.

What was the size of Brunei when Sultan Hashim inherited from Sultan Abdul Momin?

Brunei was only the size of Modern Brunei plus the Limbang and Pandaruan districts.

When was the treaty of protection signed?

17th September 1888

Who signed the treaty of protection on behalf of the British?

Hugh Low.

What were the terms of the treaty of protection?

Brunei became British Protectorate with the Sultan as sovereign ruler.

Britian took over responsibility for Brunei’s external affairs.

The Sultan could not cede any land to foreign powers without the British consent.

Why was Charles Brooke attracted to Limbang?

It was the richest food growing district of Brunei.

When was Limbang seized by Charles Brooke?

1890.

When was Limbang annexed by Charles Brooke?

1891.

Who did the British Government send to investigate on Charles Brooke’s seizure of Limbang?

Noel Trevenan.

What was the result of the investigation?

12 of the 15 local chiefs were in favour of joining Sarawak.

The British Govenrment confirmed Charles Brooke’a annexation of Limbang.

Why was the Sultan objected to the way the investigation was done?

It took no account of the opinions of the uninvited chiefs.

Invited chiefs were all Brooke’s suppporters.

The officials accompanying Trevenan all worked for Charles Brooke.

What was the cause of the disturbances in Belait and Tutong?

Heavy taxes imposed by the Tulin holders.

Who was the British consul who supported Charles Brooke to annex Belait and Tutong?

Hewett.

Who did Sultan Hashim write a letter to in 1903 to ask for help to get back Limbang?

Sultan Abdul Hamid

What was the job of Malcolm McArthur to Brunei?

To write a report about the problems in Brunei.

What did Malcolm McArthur recommend in his report?

He recommended a new agreement to supplement the Treaty of Protection.

Why was Supplementary treaty recommended?

To make the Treaty of Protection stronger and help to protect Brunei.

Who signed the Supplementary treaty on behalf of the British?

John Anderson in 1906.

When was the Supplementary treaty was signed by the Sultan?

1905.

What was the term of the Supplementary treaty?

Brunei accepted a British Resident to advise the Sultan on all matters except Islam.

Test Schedule

The dates and classes for the last topical test on the Reign of Sultan Hashim are as follow:

7E – Monday, 14/11/2011

7T – Wednesday, 9/11/2011

7R – Saturday, 12/11/2011  change to Tuesday, 15/11/2011

7U – Thursday, 10/11/2011 change to Tuesday, 15/11/2011

7L – Wednesday, 16/11/2011

Format of the paper: Stimulus Questions

Time limit: 20 minutes only

Terusan – in Sarawak or Sabah?

Terusan or also known as Trusan are apparently not only located in Sarawak (which of course is a district and now part of Limbang Division) but also apparently found in Sabah which is a town with an approximate population of 818 in 2004 according to wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terusan).

Historically, Terusan in Sarawak  was ceded to Charles Brooke in 1884 by Sultan Abdul Momin and then Pengiran Temenggong Pengiran Anak Hashim in consideration of annual money payments  before the Amanat was introduced in 1885 with an perfect excuse of disturbances which they took advantage of and that the people of Terusan hugely support Brooke government for they would impose minimal taxation and would be better off under their control rather than Brunei.

Sarawak is divided into 22 major basins

Where is exactly Tanjung Puan?

Tanjung or point means a tapering piece of land projecting into a body of water, less prominent than a cape. This Tanjung Puan according to the textbook was part of the concession belonged to Charles Brooke in 1884. But it seems that this Tanjung Puan is located in Temburong and quite far from Terusan. Brunei Forestry Department also has a working station at Tanjung Puan to protect wildlife in that surrounding vicinity. So it could be true that Tanjung Puan belongs to Brunei and perhaps the textbook got mixed up and used Tanjung Puan as the boundary to where the British claimed Terusan district.

Tanjung Puan - Part of Brunei or Sarawak?

 

Shakira – her hips say learn history for enlightenment

Shakira studied Western History

Shakira a world renowned singer from Colombia in 2007 spent her summer time attending classes in History of Civilisation at the University of California, Los Angeles. A source said: ” while everyone else has been at the beach, the MTV Awards and the Emmys, Shakira’s been studying History of Western Civilisation all summer at UCLA.”  The professor who taught her in the class had no idea who Shakira was and asked her why she was doing this, she responded for “my own enlightenment and enjoyment.”

It is quite inspiring to know that no matter how famous you are (as Shakira is), education is very important in life. Possibly, she chooses History and not other subject because she wanted to become a better person by learning from the past. I bet her investment in studying History will pay her off in the future and inspire her to produce more touching yet record-breaking songs.

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