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Recounting the Memories of the Past
When James Brooke had controlled territories in Sarawak from Tanjong Datu to Tanjong Kedurong in 1861, he named his nephew John Brooke-Johnson Brooke as his successor. Two years later, while John was in England, James deposed and banished John from Sarawak because John had criticised him for the action his uncle attempt on which was to sell the territories he controlled in Sarawak to Belgium or France (though it did not actually happen).
In 1865 James Brooke named his other nephew, Charles Anthony Johnson Brooke as his successor. When James Brooke died in 1868 due to stroke, Charles Brooke became the second Raja of Sarawak.
It is worth taking note that the opportunity presented to him as the Raja of Sarawak was not simply luck, in fact, it was the direct result of his early active experience in the navy ( as a midshipman to Royal Navy), his exposure to the remote places of Sarawak (as Resident of Lundu) as well as open relations with the tribal peoples made him the best candidate as the Raja of Sarawak. In short, he was always someone whom it was more natural to respect (or even fear) than to love and that was one of the many reasons why he was chosen as the Raja of Sarawak.
Captain Rodney Mundy or later known as Admiral Sir George Rodney Mundy was a friend of James Brooke. Both of them support each other if they faced troubles. Captain Rodney Mundy sailed to Sarawak in 1842 he took over HMS Iris and was deployed to Borneo to conduct operations against pirates.
On 1846, James Brooke with Captain Rodney Mundy and Admiral Cochrane sailed to Brunei Town. They attacked the Town on the excuse that the Sultan had done wrong by killing Pg Muda Hashim and his family.
In November 1846 Rodney Mundy was given permission to take over Labuan. He managed to force the Sultan to make up his mind and signed the Treaty of Labuan. He informed the Sultan that British warships was anchoring nearby and that the Sultan would suffer a loss if his palace was burnt down.
24th December 1846 Captain Rodney Mundy hoisted the Union Jack on Labuan Island.
The Royalist (is not to be confused with many Royal Navy ships of the same name) was a 142-ton topsail schooner. She was probably built in Cowes in 1834 as a gentleman’s yacht for Rev F.T.Lane, but purchased by James Brooke in 1836 with money he had inherited from his father. He intended to use it for an expedition to the East Indies in the course of a circumnavigation of the globe, in preparation for which he cruised in the Mediterranean in 1837. As a vessel of the Royal Yacht Squadron it was permitted to fly the White Ensign and be accorded the same rights as ships of the Royal Navy.
When armed, with ’6 six-pounders, a number of swivels, and small arms in abundance’, it was effectively a private warship and was instrumental in Brooke establishing his foothold in Sarawak from his first visit in 1839 until becoming the first White Rajah of Sarawak in 1841. Without this Schooner it would hardly be possible for James Brooke to force Pengiran Muda Hashim to fulfil his promise of giving him the administration of Sarawak after he had successfully defeat the rebels.
The Royalist is last heard of in Brunei in September 1843, and is said to have been sold early in 1844.
The schedule for the upcoming in-class test on the topic of SOAS II and Sultan Abdul Momin is as follow:
Wednesday 19th October 2011 (change to Saturday 22nd October 2011)
7T – Wednesday 19th October 2011
7R – Saturday 22nd October 2011
7U – Thursday 20th October 2011
Wednesday 19th October 2011 (change to Wednesday 26th October 2011)
There was an article about Sting that he will continue on producing songs and playing music for the next 25 years. This is what he said, ” I couldn’t live without music. I’d rather play music or die.” He is a passionate guy and admits that he still learning as a musician.
He released a compilation album, “Sting: 25 years” and this man is a true legend having won 16 grammy awards as well as a Rock and Roll Hall of Famer.
What’s so interesting about him is that he used to be a teacher (some source say teaching History while others say English) before he moved on to the more glamorous career in the music scene. I wonder how he felt becoming a teacher..hmm.
Anyways, have you ever heard his songs? As always comments are welcomed.
To students Year 7ETRUL, This link here SOAS II summary table review is a revision notes on the topic of SOAS II that you can download for your own reference. You can use it for your own revision on this topic. Scroll down to get more information related to this topic.
Questions and Answers Review.
1. When did SOAS II become the 23rd Sultan of Brunei?
2. Why Britain had little involvement in Borneo at the beginning of the 19th century?
They were more interested in using Penang as their main trading base.
3. When was the British intervention in Brunei started?
It started with the arrival of James Brooke to Sarawak in 1839.
4. Who was appointed the Governor in Sarawak by Sultan Muhammad Kanzul Alam in 1824?
Pengiran Indera Mahkota Pengiran Muhammad Salleh.
5. Where was the old capital of Sarawak located?
6. What was the major export of Sarawak in the early 19th century?
7. Why was the local people rebelled against Pengiran Indera Mahkota?
He forced the local people to work in his mines.
8. Who came to visit Pengiran Indera Mahkota in Sarawak in 1834?
Pengiran Muda Hashim.
9. Why was there friction between Pengiran Muda Hashim and Pengiran Indera Mahkota?
Pengiran Indera Mahkota did not welcomed Pengiran Muda Hashim when he arrived in Sarawak so Pengiran Muda Hashim became angry about this.
10. What two problems did James Brooke take advantage of to achieve his personal aims?
The friction between two nobles and local disturbances in Sarawak against Pengiran Indera Mahkota.
11. Who offered James Brooke the control of Sarawak if he can help defeat the rebels?
Pengiran Muda Hashim.
12. Which treaty appointed James Brooke the Governor in Sarawak?
The 1842 treaty with the Sultan’s approval.
13. What happened to Pengiran Indera Mahkota after the treaty of 1842?
Pengiran Indera Mahkota was forced to step down as Governor of Sarawak and to leave Kuching.
14. Why did the British attack on Brunei in July 1846?
The murder of Pengiran Muda Hashim and most of his family made James Brooke angry so he took revenge by attacking Brunei Town.
15. Who did James Brooke obtain permission from to attack Brunei?
The British governor-general of India.
16. Which treaty made James Brooke as Raja of Sarawak?
Treaty signed on 2 August 1846.
17. What were the terms under the treaty signed on 2 August 1846?
James Brooke recognised by Brunei as the Raja of Sarawak to rule territories from Tanjung Datu to the Samarahan River.
James Brooke was free to appoint his own successor as Raja of Sarawak.
James Brooke would pay $4000 per year to the Sultan of Brunei.
18. Why were the British interested in Labuan?
It was strategically sited to protect British interests in the China trade route.
Rich supplies of coal.
19. Who was the British Navy Captain who lined up British warships near the Sultan’s Palace?
Captain Rodney Mundy.
20. When was the treaty of Labuan signed?
18th December 1846.
21. What was the terms under treaty of Labuan?
Labuan was ceded to the British
James Brooke was appointed the first governor of Labuan in 1848.
22. Why was the British wanted a treaty of Friendship and Commerce with Brunei in 1847?
To take control of Brunei’s affairs and the fear of the Sultan might seek help from other foreign powers.
23. When was the Anglo-Brunei treaty of Friendship and Commerce signed?
27th May 1847.
24. What were the terms of the Anglo-Brunei treaty of friendship and commerce in 1847?
British subjects would be allowed to live and trade in Brunei.
British subjects would have extraterritorial rights.
All imports and exports by the British in Brunei and its territories would be free from taxes.
British warships could enter all ports and rivers in Brunei.
The Sultan would not cede any Brunei territories without the consent of the British government.
25. Why was the American interested in signing treaty of friendship and commerce with Brunei in 1850?
They wanted to trade in Brunei.
26. Who composed the Syair Rakis?
Pengiran Indera Mahkota Pengiran Muhammad Salleh.
27. What was the Syair Rakis contained?
It contained Pengiran Indera Mahkota’s observations on the political situation of Brunei in the 19th century and advice to be wary of foreign intervention.
YESTERDAY IS HISTORY,
TOMORROW IS MYSTERY,
TODAY IS A GIFT,
THAT’S WHY WE CALL IT THE PRESENT.
This quote is quite well heard of especially if you have watched Kung Fu Panda. Reading between the lines, it is true, so true that we could not control what had happened in the past (though we can learn a lot from the PAST) nor worried too much on what will happen in the future because we don’t know what it will bring. But today is the best time to do things right (whatever it is whether studies or other obligations) and just live through it with good intentions, thoughts and actions. One should live the moment. Appreciate life. Do the very best one can do.
Comments are always welcomed
When the British and the Sultan of Brunei signed the Treaty of Friendship and Commerce 1847, the British gained a considerable control in trade and territories. They also enjoyed extraterritorial rights in Brunei.
So what is extraterritorial rights? Basically they are rights of foreigners outside of (“extra”) their own country. With these rights, the British could get away from harsh punishments in accordance to Hukum Kanun (Islamic law) if they were caught committing any crimes though they would still be tried in the British court.
To demonstrate some examples of punishments according to Hukum kanun, i extract two clauses:
Now you see how the British made a smart move in 1847 by signing the treaty of friendship and commerce to not only gain exclusive rights in trade and territories in Brunei but also protecting the British subjects in Brunei from any unpleasant treatments and punishments.